Wednesday, March 18, 2020



Aviation history is the complete development of manned flight, including primitive flight trials in the early days of humanity and the first air heavy-duty flight of the Wright Brothers on December 17, 1903.

One of the earliest stories of man's passion for flying since the first days he began observing birds is the legend of Daedalus and his son, Icarus, in Greek Mythology. There are other Indian, Chinese, and medieval legends as well. According to this legend, King Minos imprisoned father Daedalus and his son on the island of Crete. Bored of his imprisonment, Daedalus comes to mind by making goose feathers and using them to escape from the island. This is the oldest legendary manned flight. In short, in this period, which we could call primitive aviation, people couldn't go beyond imitating birds, but then they didn't fail to find different types of aircraft such as balloons, airships, gliders and ultimately aircraft.

Aircraft designers have worked hard to make their vehicles faster, farther, higher and easier to control.

Aircraft engines became increasingly efficient, from steam to reciprocating to jet and rocket engines.

Aircraft became safer, materials more durable and lighter. Initially, planes were made of canvas and wood. The canvas was then replaced by varnished fabric and steel pipes. II.During World War, aluminum monocoque production became widespread. Today, aircraft are made of carbon fiber and composite materials, in particular because they are lighter, more durable and more easily formable.
The methods used to control aircraft are evolving every day. Initially, the gliders were controlled by the movement of the entire body of the user or, as in Alphonse Pénaud, the wings had an upwardly elevating and tapering tip. (Today's modern wing shape) The tail was adjustable in order to ensure horizontal positioning and had the same wing characteristics. Modern airplanes are controlled electronically via computers. Contemporary warplanes provide balanced flights with continuous commands from flight computer to meet all acrobatic maneuvers.


In the 9th century, Abbas Ibn Firnas of Córdoba is known to have made the first flying gliders.

After his trip to China, Marco Polo brought stories about wind-driven and human-bearing kites, a Chinese book claiming the existence of rotating wing aircraft (helicopters) in the 4th century.

About 2 centuries later, in the 15th century, the prophecies of Marco Polo's trip came true, and Leonardo da Vinci's drawings designed a glider that survived to the present day. This glider was not built at that time, but it was built at the end of the 19th century by using the materials of that period. Since this design was worthy of flying, and because it was a prototype based on Vinci's original plans, it was found to be really flying, but, of course, some interventions were made to the original design using today's aerodynamic knowledge. Leonardo also designed a helicopter at the same time, but it is clear that this design cannot fly.

In the 17th century, Turkish scientist Lagari Hasan Çelebi threw himself into the air with the help of a missile (rocket) designed by himself and connected to it by a large cage and a conical shaped gunpowder. Flight, Ottoman sultan IV. Murad's daughter's birthday celebrations.

After this flight made a soft landing on the Bosphorus and Sultan IV. Murad is believed to have honored him with a high rank in the army for his success. It is estimated that the flight lasts for about 20 seconds and reaches a height of approximately 300 meters. (However, this is not proven by historical records and is only mentioned in the travelogue of Evliya Celebi, who is known for her exaggerated stories.)

In 1638, Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi flew over the Bosphorus with a pair of wings inspired by birds. He started his flight from the Galata Tower on the European side of the Bosphorus, glided, traveled a distance of 3 km and descended to the Asian side of the Bosphorus without injury. (However, this is not proven by historical records and is only mentioned in the travelogue of Evliya Celebi, who is known for her exaggerated stories.)

In a publication published in 1670, Francesco Lana de Tailor mentioned that aerial flight was possible with spheres made of copper foils evacuated by vacuuming. Drawing of the aircraft designed by him. Although it does not miss the point, the point it omits in this design is that the pressure of the air surrounding the spheres will be crushed towards the inside of the spheres.


Although most of us thought that manned flights started by plane in the early 1900s, people had actually been flying for about 200 years.

The first manned flight, accepted by the majority, took place in Paris in 1783. Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and Francois d'Arlandes traveled 8 km using a hot air balloon invented by the Montgolfier brothers. The balloon was heated by wood fire and could not be controlled, which meant that the wind was flying wherever it took it.

Ballooning became a widespread endeavor towards the end of the 18th century, thus allowing the exploration of the relationship between altitude and atmosphere.

Work on the development of directional, controllable, balloon control systems, which we now call airship, continued throughout the 1800s. It is believed that the first controllable and direct airborne flight was carried out in 1852 by Henri Giffard in an airplane with a steam engine flying 24 km.

Another noteworthy development was that in 1884, Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs made their first fully controllable free flight with La France (France), an electric-powered airship from the French Army. The airship, which is 170 ft (~ 51 m) long and 66000 ft³ (~ 1869 m³), ​​traveled 8 km in 23 minutes with the help of an 8.5 horsepower electric motor.

However, these aircraft were very fragile and had a very short life. Controllable flights became commonplace only by the presence of internal combustion engines.

Although, the zeppelins I. and II. Even if they were used in World Wars, even today, they have been limited and their development has stopped with the development of airborne aircraft.


Directed balloon invented by Giffard in 1852

The first publication on aviation was "Drawing of a machine that can fly in air", made in 1716 by Emanuel Swedenborg. This flying machine has a very light skeleton surrounded by a very strong canvas fabric and two large paddles or wings moving on both sides of the horizontal axle, which provide no bearing resistance in their upward movement but provide bearing force in their downward movement. Swedenborg knew very well that the machine could not fly, but he anticipated it as a good start to the solution of the flying problem. "Talking about such a machine that weighs less than the weight of the human body and requires a greater force seems difficult to turn it into reality. Perhaps the science of mechanics will give this machine a meaning. There is already evidence that such flights can be made in nature without danger, even though some sacrifices have been made for their first attempt and they didn't care about a lost leg or arm. " Swedenborg proved that he saw the future by saying that by flying an aircraft (engine power) the basic problem could be solved.

In the last years of the 18th century, Sir George Cayley initiated the first meticulous work on the physics of flight. In 1799 he exhibited a glider plan. This glider was completely modern except for the planform structure of its wings and had a separate tail for control and was placed under the pilot's center of gravity for better stability and flew its model in 1804. Over the next 50 years, Cayley continued to work on aeronautics and developed many basic concepts of aerodynamics such as transport and drag. Although he used both internal and external combustion engines filled with gunpowder, the first power was given to Alphonse Penaud, who used rubber (tire) power to power the aircraft model. Later, Cayley used his research to make a full-size vehicle, first flying it unmanned in 1849, and then in Yorkshire in 1853 he made a short flight from his assistant Brompton to Scarborough.

In 1848, John Stringfellow conducted the test flight of the first steam-powered model in Chard, Somerset, England. This was an 'unmanned' flight.

Jean-Marie Le Bris and flying machine Albatross II, 1868.
In 1856, the Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made a flight on the beach higher than where he first left, with the glider "L'Albatros artificiel" drawn by a horse. The glider has been reported to have risen 100 m and traveled 200 m.

In 1874, Felix du Temple built a large monoplane in Brest, France, made of aluminum with a wing span of 13 m and a weight of only 80 kg, excluding the pilot. Many attempts have been made with this aircraft and it has been proven that the aircraft can lift up and glide with its own power and then land safely. This was the first self-powered flight in history, even for a very short distance and time.

Single wing of the Félix du Temple (monoplane)
One of the people who developed the art of flying is Francis Herbert Wenham. Wenham attempted to manufacture a series of unsuccessful gliders. During his work, he found that most of the transport in a bird wing-like wing occurred in front of the wing. He took this further and realized that thin wings were better than bat wing wings, contrary to many people's claims, because thin wings had more attack edges than their weight. Today, this measurement is known as the opening ratio of the wing. In 1866, he presented his work to the British Royal Aviation Society, which had just begun to form at the time, and in 1871, to prove his work, he decided to build the world's first wind tunnel. Using the tunnel, members of the community found that curved blades create more transport than Cayley's Newtonian association at a 15 ° angle of attack with a carry-drag ratio of 5: 1. This showed that machines flying heavier than air could easily be produced, although initially it seemed to be a problem to strengthen them (with engines, etc.) and control the flight.


Planaphor to Alphonse Pénaud's model aircraft, 1871

The 1880s were a period of fervent work, with much research into the 20th century. With the beginning of the developments in the 1880s, the construction of the first truly practical glider was possible. During this period, the following three people were really active: Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher and Octave Chanute. One of the truly contemporary gliders was produced by John J. Montgomery, who, on August 28, 1883, controlled his flight out of San Diego. These efforts became known only after many years. Another delta wing style glider was made by Wilhelm Kress in 1877 near Vienna.

Otto Lilienthal was one of the first men to build a machine that was heavier than air.
The German otto Lilienthal doubled Wenham's work in 1874 and developed much and published all of his work in 1889. In addition, a series of much better gliders produced and in 1891 with these gliders 25 m distance flights made ordinary. He has meticulously recorded all of his works, including photography, and is therefore one of the best known among the early pioneers. The aircraft he found is now known as a sailing wing.

Lilienthal knew that it was not possible to study the laws of aviation further from the moment the engine was installed on the plane. These laws which he found and defined were the most important legacies he left to his followers, and his followers saved many attempts and mistakes by using these laws.

In 1896, when he was flying with his latest design, he had made 2500 flights with different designs until that time when he fell from a height of 17 m when his wings were broken by a strong wind and his spine was broken. When he died the day after his fall, his last words were "Victims should be given." Before he died, Lilienthal was working on suitable small engines to strengthen his designs.

Octave Chanute resumed where Lilienthal left off, preventing early retirement of aircraft designs and financed the development of many gliders. In the summer of 1896, his team designed them at Miller Beach in Indiana and concluded that the best was the more contemporary biplane design. Like Lilienthal, Chanute photographed and recorded all of his work and communicated with people all over the world. Unlike birds, Chanute was not particularly interested in people's instincts, but rather in the issue of balanced flight that they had to do manually. The biggest problem was the vertical balance, because when the angle of attack was increased, the center of pressure shifted forward, causing the angle of attack to increase more and, if not promptly intervened, the vehicle to nose up and loss of grip.

The patent drawings of Clement Ader's Eole made the first propeller flight in history.

Avion III by Clément Ader (photo 1897).
During this period, there have been many attempts to build a truly powered (engine, etc.) aircraft. However, many of the amateur aviators who failed to take into account the problems described by Lilienthal and Chanute often failed.

In 1890, Clement Ader, the first "long-distance" propeller flight in history near Paris, France, took place with a steam engine Eole, flying a short distance of 50 m. After this experiment, he began to work on a larger design, which would take 5 years to complete. However, this design, called the Avion III, was very heavy and could hardly take off. It has been reported that the aircraft travels a distance of 300 meters with little elevation from the ground.

Sir Hiram Maxim worked on a series of designs in the UK and finally designed a giant with a wing span of 32 m and a weight of 3175 kg, equipped with 2 low-weight steam engines, each with 180 hp (134 kW). Maxim had created a design of this magnitude to examine the fundamental problems of production and had not added a control system because he knew that it would not be safe to fly with such a vehicle. To this end, he built a 550m-long rail test track on which the aircraft could drive. After a few trial runs to work on the problems, on July 31, 1894, he increased his force settings and ran a series of trial runs. His first two attempts were successful and the vehicle was flying over the tracks. In the afternoon, the team commissioned the entire steam boiler to gain full power, causing the vehicle's speed to reach 68 km / h at 180 m, and detaching itself from the rails, causing it to crash to the ground after a 60 m high flight. His misfortune prevented him from working on a smaller, gasoline-powered design in the 1900s.

Another successful early designer was Samuel Pierpont Langley. Following an outstanding career in astronomy, he was a fellow at the University of Pittsburg, then Smithsonian Institute, where he undertook serious research in aerodynamics. In 1891, he published his work, Aerodynamic Experiments, and then began to produce his designs. On May 6, 1896; 5, the production of 40 km / h speed, the first 1000 m, the second of the two flights of 700 m as the first successful and noteworthy design of the vehicle has realized heavier than air flight. On November 28, another successful flight took place with a similar model, the Aerodrome N. 6, this time flying about 1460 m.

Another heavier flight attempt was made by Percy Pilcher in England. Pilcher, flying successfully into the mid-1890s; The Bat (The Bat), The Beetle (The Beetle), The Hawk and The Gull. In 1899, he built an engine-powered aircraft prototype, which was shown to be able to fly today, but he died in a glider accident before he could try it and his work was forgotten for years.


The first aircraft capable of routinely controlled flight were non-skeletal airships, which would later be called "blimp." The most successful pioneer of this genre was Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont. Santos-Dumont has very efficiently associated a balloon with an internal combustion engine. He gained worldwide fame in 1901 when he won the Deutsch de la Meurtha award when he wandered his airship "Number 6" around the Eiffel Tower in Saint Cloud Park in Paris skies and came back in under 30 minutes. Following this success in airships, he started to design and manufacture various aircraft.

At the time of non-skeletal airships achieved great success, controllable airships with skeleton also showed great improvements. In fact, frame-mounted zeppelins have been used for decades to be much more efficient in terms of cargo carrying capacity than fixed-wing aircraft. The controllable design was developed by the German count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.

The construction of the first true Zeppelin construction began in 1899 at the blowing facilities at Lake Constance in Mannell Bay in Friedrichshafen. This made the start-up process very easy because the plant could be adjusted to the wind. The first airship prototype LZ 1 ("Luftschiff Zeppelin") was 128 m and had two Daimler engines of 10.6 kW (14.2 ps), the balance of which was provided by the moving weight between the two hangers.


Aviation experiment on the Potomac River, 1903, Samuel Pierpont Langley.
Aerodrome No. With the success of 6, Langley embarked on a search for finance to design a real-size version suitable for human transport. He managed to get $ 50,000 from the government, and perhaps even fueled the new Spanish-American War at that time. In order to build the enlarged scale of the model known as Aerodrome A, Langley began to produce a smaller design called the Quarter-sized Aerodrome, which would fly twice on 18 June 1901 and then fly with a more powerful engine in 1903.

After the foundation design was tested successfully, he began working on a more appropriate engine problem. To this end, he signed with Stephen Balzer, but was disappointed that an engine he hoped would be 12 hp (9 kW) was produced by Balzer at only 8 hp (6 kW). Charles M. Manly, Langley's assistant, designed a 5-cylinder water-cooled star engine with 52 hp (39 kW) at 950 rpm, which could take years to build the same performance. Thus, combining a design of this power with the design of the aircraft in his hand, Langley was now hopeful.

However, he was disappointed that the vehicle he designed was too fragile. As with the real-size design of many small models, this kind of approach, ie the larger model based on the small model, omitted the fact that it would make the aircraft heavier than desired. To simplify, his large-scale design was too heavy to fly. In both attempts in 1903, they crashed into the water shortly after the aircraft took off.

Thus, when he could not find any more finance, Lagley's work ended. Only a few weeks later, the Wright brothers' design, the Flyer, would fly successfully.

(Glen Curtiss made several modifications to the Aerodrome and successfully flew it in 1914 - that's why the Smithsonian Institute still maintains that the "first flying machine" is Aerodrome.)

Wright Brothers

Starting from the leap principle of Lilienthal before flying, the Wright brothers experimented with a series of kites and gliders from 1900 to 1902 before producing a powered (motorized) vehicle. His gliders worked, although not as much as they had experienced and written by their predecessors in the 19th century. The first glider they flew in 1900 provided only half the transport they had hoped for. The second glider they produced in the following year was much worse. Instead of giving up, the Wright brothers built their own wind tunnels, which they would carry out experiments on transport and drag calculations over 200 wings they designed and developed with different tools for measurements. As a result, they corrected the mistakes made by their predecessors in handling and dragging. However, they ignored the Reynold number effect, which has been known since 1883 and is likely to give them a greater advantage. So, using the new calculations they found, they built the third glider they would fly in 1902. This model was far more successful than its predecessors. In the end, these rigorous studies did not only allow them to build a properly working aircraft, but also to build a wind tunnel to test their models and test flights of real-size models.

The Wright brothers team was the first design team to work seriously on the problems of designs that were both strengthened (with engine, etc.) and controllable. Although both problems were very difficult to deal with, they never lost their appeal. As a result, they produced a motor to solve power problems and solved control problems with a system called "wing warping". Although this method not only solved the problem of controlling low-speed flights in the first years of aviation history, it also laid the foundation for the later components to be developed. While many aviation pioneers have often left security to chance, the Wright's design is more influenced by the principle of avoiding unnecessary risks and avoiding crashes, which they feel they need to teach them. This was not because they lacked the power to make them fly faster, but because they were experimenting at low speed and taking off the wind to make it safer to fly. This was also because the designs were heavy from the rear and they used canals and anhedral wings in their designs.

The Wright brothers made the first controllable and motorized flight heavier than air, on December 17, 1903, in Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. [2]

Orville Wright's first flight, which lasted for 12 seconds and was 37 m long, was recorded with a very famous photograph. On the same day, Willbur Wright made a 59-second and 260-meter flight on the fourth flight. Their flight trials were followed by 4 lifeguards and one person from the town, making it the first public flight and the best recorded flight.


In the same period, other inventors made short flights or claimed to have made them. On 14 August 1901, Gustave Whitehead reported flying with a powered vehicle. However, although he was unable to record his flight, a copy of the number 21 vehicle he flew later was successfully flown. Lyman Gilmore also claimed success on May 15, 1902. On March 31, 1903, in New Zealand, Richard Pearse and the South Canterbury farmer produced a monopoly and repeatedly flew it successfully. However, even Pearse himself admitted that this was an uncontrolled flight and stated that the flight ended without crashing to a more accurate elevation.

Just a few months after Pearse, Karl Jatho made a short motorized flight in August 1903. Jatho's wing design and air speed control control surfaces of the vehicle did not allow it to function well enough to control the aircraft.

Also in 1903, some witnesses claimed that Preston Watson made his first flight in the village of Errol near Dundee in eastern Scotland. Once again, it was difficult to prove the accuracy of this claim, since there was no photograph and written record of the incident.

In 1905, the Wright brothers carried out public flights (more than 80) in Dayton, Ohio, and in 1904 by calling friends, neighbors and journalists. However, only a few of them showed interest when invited to these invitations.

Alberto Santos-Dumont made a public flight in Europe on September 13, 1906. He used a canard, an elevator and a slanted wing and covered a distance of 221 meters. Since this aircraft does not require a catapult for any counter wind and takeoff, some consider this flight to be the first motorized flight.

Two British inventors, Henry Farman and John William Dunne, were also working on separate motorized flights. In January 1908, Farman won the Grand Prix d'Aviation award for a machine that traveled more than 1 km, although longer distances have been made. For example, for longer flights; In 1905, the Wright brothers flew more than 39 km. Dunne's first work was supported by the British Military Forces and tested in great secrecy at Geln Tilt in Scotland. His best early design, D4, flew at Blair Atholl in Perthshire in December 1908. Dunne's most important contribution to early aviation was the balance, a key problem in the work of both the Wright brothers and Samuel Cody.

On May 14, 1908, the Wright brothers took Charlie Furnas as their first two-seater flight.

On July 8, 1908, Thérèse Peltier was the first woman to fly with Leon Delagrange in Milan, Italy, about 200m as the first passenger.

At Fort Myer in Orville, Virginia, the plane crashed while military testing its two-seater, and Thomas Selfridge was the first person to die on a motorized flight.

Ms. Hart O. Berg was the first American woman to fly as a passenger on a plane with Wilbur Wright in Le Mans France in late 1908.

On July 25, 1909, the Frenchman Louis Bleriot was the first person to cross the English Channel. The flight from Calais to Dover took 37 minutes. The flight took place with his development of a monoplane design, the Bleriot XI, which crossed the Channel and received a £ 1000 prize from the London Daily Mail.

On October 22, 1909, Raymonde de Laroche became the first woman to drive an airborne heavy aircraft. She was also the first woman in the world to obtain a pilot license.

Although the invention of the aircraft was attributed to the Wright Brothers, many nations have had their own first in their aviation history. For example, Romanian engineer Traian Vuia (1872-1950) is alleged to have produced the first self-propelled airplane heavy aircraft, which can be fully vented without the need for a counter wind. The Vuia aircraft was built and used in Montesson near Paris on March 18, 1906. No flight has been more than 30 meters away. In comparison, in October 1905, the Wright brothers made a 39-minute flight over the Huffman Prairie, which traveled over 39 km.

Although the first truly identifiable helicopter was the Fock FA-61 (Germany 1936), the first helicopter that could take off from the ground flew in 1907.


Planes were also included in military service almost as soon as they were invented. The first state to use aircraft for military purposes was Italy (Kingdom of Italy).During the Tripoli War (29 September 1911-18 October 1912), the Italian planes took part against the Ottoman Empire in Libya for bombing and reconnaissance. These planes performed their first reconnaissance mission on 23 October 1911 and the first bombing mission on 1 November 1911. In addition, the first fighter plane that was dropped in history was shot down by Ottoman soldiers during this war.

After Italy, the Kingdom of Bulgaria continued to use aircraft during the war.During the First Balkan War (8 October 1912 - 30 May 1913), Bulgarian planes were used for reconnaissance against the Ottoman Empire.

1914 - 1918: WORLD WAR I

World War I was the first war in which airplanes were used for attack, defense and reconnaissance.

During World War I, the Entente States and the Allied States both used the planes a lot. The most famous aircraft of the war was Sopwith Camel, which had won more air victories than any other aircraft, but at the same time was renowned for its difficult and useless control system that killed many pilots.

The aviators were seen as the only fighting knights of the modern age. Many pilots became famous for their air-to-air collisions. The most well-known of these was the Manfred von Richthofen, nicknamed the Red Baron, and shot more than 80 planes in an air-to-air collision with several different planes, including one of the most famous, Fokker Dr I. On the other hand, the most famous pilot of the Entente States was Rene Paul Fonck with many victories.

Even though the idea of ​​using planes as weapons during World War I was ridiculous at first, all the leading forces never underestimated the idea of ​​using planes as a means of taking photographs. All of the major forces typically had pre-war sports models modified for their purpose, but only in reconnaissance teams, even for photographing purposes. Although their initial efforts have been made difficult by their low load-bearing capacity, these efforts have made sense through the development of two-person models.

Just before the planes started firing at each other, the problem was that they could not find a suitable stationary position by placing the gun. The French solved this problem by putting a machine gun in front of Rolan Garros's plane in 1914, but Adolphe Pegoud won the first victory, becoming the first "flying ace" and then the first ace that died in the battle.

1918 - 1939: THE GOLDEN AGE

World War I and II. The years between World War II have witnessed great advances in aircraft technology.

During this period, the aircraft shifted from mostly wood and canvas (some kind of fabric) to almost entirely aluminum. Again in this period, there have been huge developments in engine technology and from the sequential water-cooled type engines to star and air-cooled type engines. This resulted in a tremendous increase in thrust. The award received as a result of all these developments was to increase the distance and speed of flights. Charles Lindbergh, for example, received the £ 25,000 Orteig Award, the first driver alone, but not the first driver to pass the Atlantic. It wasn't the first because it was again eight years before the Atlantic, but this time by two people, Captain John Alcock and Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown on a Vickers Vimy plane, on June 14, 1919 in Newfoundland. John was flown to Clifden in Ireland and won the Northcliffe Prize £ 10,000.

Pilots, II. After World War II, they were more eager to demonstrate their newly acquired capabilities. Many American pilots became air tightrope, and they performed shows in small towns as well as giving people who wanted to fly for a fee. In addition, many air shows in which airplanes were competed during this period. Such races have led to major improvements in both the engine and body design. As the pilots competed for cash, this always encouraged them to find faster. Amelia Earhart was perhaps the most famous of these airstrippers. She was also the first woman to cross the Atlantic and the British Channel.

The airship R34, which took off from East Lothian in Scotland and landed in Long Islan in New York, then returned to Pulham in England, became the first lightweight aircraft to cross the Atlantic. By 1929, airship technology reached such a point that in September the first world tour, the ship called Graf Zeppelin, and again in October, the same aircraft made its first commercial transatlantic flight. Unfortunately, the life of the controllable airships ended with the famous Hindenburg disaster in 1937. After Hindenburg caught fire at the landing site at Lakehurst in New Jersey, people stopped using zeppelins for their journey, even though the majority of the passengers on the deck were saved. When the Hindenburg disaster came upon the Winged Foot Express accident, which killed 12 people in Chicago on July 21, 1919, this caused the zeppelins to take their place on the stage of history.

In the 1930s, the development of the jet engine began in both Germany and the UK. In England, Frank Whittle received a patent for a jet engine in 1930 and began developing an engine in the late 30s. In Germany, Hans von Ohain patented his jet engine in 1936 and began developing a similar engine. Both were unaware of each other, and both Germany and the United Kingdom had their own jet planes. They developed at the end of World War II.

1939 - 1945: II. WORLD WAR

II. World War II was the scene of great strides in the development and production of aircraft. All the countries involved in the war have made a lot of development and production in the aircraft and the associated weapon systems, such as the German V-2 missile, and eventually II. World War I witnessed the first long-range bomber and the first jet fighter. The first truly true jet aircraft was the German Heinkel He 178, and in 1939 he was flown by Erich Warsitz. The pioneering prototype Coanda-1910 had a short flight on December 16. The first missile V-1 and the first ballistic missile V-2 were also developed by the Germans. Neither jet airplanes nor ballistic missiles were affected, because neither the V-1 was very effective nor the V-2 was produced in such useful numbers. The development of the P-51 Mustang aircraft was an important point for the development of heavy bombers in terms of increased payload.

1945 - 1991: THE COLD WAR

D.H. Comet is the world's first jet airliner.

Commercial aviation, II. After World War II, it started to develop by transporting people and goods by using old military aircraft. Within a few years, many companies have been established that operate flights covering North America, Europe and other parts of the world. This rapid advance was due to the fact that large-body bombers such as the B-29 and Lancaster could easily be turned into commercial aircraft. At the same time, thanks to the DC-3, easier and longer flights are possible. After the British Comet, North America's first commercial jet aircraft was the Avro C102 Jetliner flying in September 1949. By 1952, the British Overseas Airlines company, De Havilland Comet, had already scheduled flights. However, as these technical developments continued, this aircraft suffered from many structural cracks caused by metal fatigue and in particular due to the shape of its windows. Metal fatigue was caused by continuous cyclic pressurization of the cabin and subsequent depressurization, which, of course, caused severe damage to the fuselage. When these problems were solved, other jet passenger planes had already taken their place in the skies, one of which was the Boeing 700, which increased the comfort and safety offered to passengers to higher levels. The 707 aircraft has been a pioneer in making commercial aviation a widespread and advanced position today.

II. Even at the end of World War II, there was still a need for further development of aircraft and missile technologies. In October 1947, Chuck Yeager crossed the speed of sound with a Bell X-1 missile, though not long after the end of the war. Although there were rumors during the war that some pilots had exceeded the speed of sound when they dived for bombardment, this was the first flight in a controlled and leveled way through the sound wall. Subsequently, in 1948 and 1952, a jet aircraft passed the Atlantic for the first time and the first non-stop flight to Australia took place.

The 1950s were to be written as a new era in the history of military aviation. When the Soviet Union developed bombers capable of carrying long-distance flights to North America and Europe to carry nuclear weapons, the Western countries responded by blocking them to catch and destroy them before they reached their destination.

In 1961, the sky no longer formed a boundary for manned flight, and Yuri Gagarin had already left the earth and made a 108-minute orbit flight. This step accelerated the space race that began in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1 into space. The United States responded by sending the Mercury space capsule and Alan Shepard into space for six orbital flights. In 1963, with Aloutte 1 sending space, Canada became the third country to send a satellite to space. This space race between the US and the USSR led to the climax of manned flight when mankind landed on the moon in 1969.

Of course, the only development in aviation history in this period was not the success achieved in space. In 1967, the X-15 set the fastest record for a plane, reaching 6.1 Mach (7,297 km / h). Aside from airplanes designed to fly out of the atmosphere, this record has been the highest airspeed ever achieved for motorized flights.

In 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin set foot on the moon, and Boeing attracted attention with its Boeing 747 design, which reflects the future of air transport. This aircraft is still one of the largest aircraft ever built and carries millions of passengers every year. Commercial aviation improved even further when British Airlines provided a supernatural Atlantic flight in 1976 with the Concorde plane. A few years ago, the Atlantic SR-71 Karakus, which was flying in less than 2 hours, had broken the speed record, and Concorde had followed this up with passengers.

The fourth quarter of the 20th century, unlike the first three quarters, was slower in terms of aviation developments. There were no longer revolutionary developments in flight speed, distances and technology. This period of the century mostly witnessed basic developments in aviation electronics and minor advances in aviation.

For example, in 1979, Gossamer Albatross became the first manpowered aircraft to cross the English channel. Although this success has been the transformation of human imagination into reality for centuries, it has made a major contribution to the development of neither commercial nor military aviation. In 1986, Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager traveled around the world in a plane without refueling or landing. In 199, Bertrand Piccard became the first person to travel around the world with balloons. By the end of the 20th century, all of the small and large achievements that had to be developed for subsonic aviation were now achieved. After that, the eyes turned to the discovery of space and the flight from sound to fast. Now, thanks to awards such as the Ansari X Award, the goal of many aviation enthusiasts would be to get out of the atmosphere by making quick rockets out of personal sound.


At the beginning of the 21st century, subsonic aviation focused on eliminating the concept of a pilot for fully self-directed or remotely steered vehicles. Many Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or UAVs have been developed. In April 2001, the unmanned aircraft, the Global Hawk, flew from Edwards Air Base in the US to Australia without stopping and refueling. This was the longest unmanned aircraft flight from one point to another and lasted 23 hours and 23 minutes. For the first time in October 2003 a fully self-controlled computer-controlled model aircraft crossing the Atlantic took place.

Commercial aviation saw the end of an era at the beginning of the 21st century with the retirement of Concorde aircraft. Concorde's special design, slim structure, and the resulting passenger limitation, British Airways have made a significant income from the operation of this aircraft, although it seems that the excessive fuel consumption prevents it from being a good commercial aircraft.

Despite this backward step and the slowdown in the development of aviation, it is a common belief that the 21st century will be a brilliant aviation century. Airplanes and missiles possess unique and never-underestimated capabilities in terms of their speed and carrying capacity. As long as people need to go from place to place, aviation will also be needed.

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

favourite category


Whatsapp Button works on Mobile Device only